A spongy tissue which is soft and present inside the bones is called a bone marrow. It acts the medium for storage and development of the blood cells in the body. Stem cells are the blood cells capable of producing other blood cells. Stems cells can produce another cell similar or generate subsets of matured cells. Stem cells are required for the bone marrow transplantation.
BMT – Bone Marrow Transplantation
BMT is a unique way to treat patients with certain diseases including cancer. The BMT process is executed by taking the stem cells and filtering them to give it back to oneself or others. The BMT objective is to transfuse bone marrow cells that are healthy to destroy the abnormal cells.
Cost of a Bone marrow transplant is worth as it treats conditions including solid cancerous tumors, immune system deficiencies, aplastic anemia, lymphomas, and leukemia.
Need For Bone Marrow Transplantation
During cancer treatment, chemotherapy destroys the bone marrow cells, and hence BMT is required in replacing with the cells.
For regenerating a new immune system and fight the residual or existing leukemia.
Replaced bone marrow will function normally and prevents damage in the future.
Different Types Of Bone Marrow Transplants
The bone marrow transplants type can be decided based on the donor.
When the donor and the patients are the same, it is called as Autologous bone marrow transplant. Stem cells taken from the patient are frozen and preserved for later use.
The donor genetically shares the same stem cell with the patient is called as Allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Usually, sibling’s (brother or sister from same parents) stem cell will be preserved and used during the BMT. Bone marrow transplant cost varies based on the type of the transplant.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplants can sometimes include parents or nonrelated donor. Under these two situations, the bone marrow sample will be tested before being preserved.
The stem cell preserved from the umbilical cord soon after birth can be used for BMT for the same child or others are called an Umbilical Cord blood transplant.
Steps Involved In Matching The Donor And Recipient
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue match is checked. The antigens present on the surface of the HLA the white blood cells will describe the genetic makeup the immune system. Among the hundreds of available antigens, only a few can help in the matching process.
The better the antigen match, the better is the engraftment process. Engraftment happens if the donated cells find their way into the bone marrow and produce new cells.
Only one chromosome will consist of the genes that “code” the immune system. Each has two chromosomes. One each from mother and father. The siblings are considered to have the “full match” for bone marrow transplantation.
Parents have fifty percent chance for a match. Other donors have remote possibilities of the match. Only test results can confirm the match for bone marrow transplantation.
Remember that bone marrow transplantation is a complicated process. You must consult with best doctors before performing any procedure.